Schwalm-Eder County in North Hesse is especially noteworthy for forestry research because of the potential for developing reforestation on a large scale, especially for the transformation of agricultural land into forests. There is so much overproduction in the agricultural Common Market that about 70% of the agricultural budget of $25 billion is used for the storage of overproduction or for the destruction of it. This has to lead at some point to less intensive agricultural production. The Common market now covers only 40% of its wood requirement; and aside from Japan, the Common Market countries import the most tropical wood, especially from West ...
Foresters are applying lime in the Austrian forests against acid rain. They know that lime is too alkaline and destroys the humus because it destroys the acid-alkaline balance. Lime destroys the nitrogen compounds in the humus and it leaches nitrogen into the water which is a pollutant. Measurements show that with acid rain comes about 40, 50, 60 kilos of nitrogen per hectare.
The ion exchange of the primary minerals is one of the central topics from the perspective of geological and soil scientific studies as well as papers concerning plant nutrition. The latter has been given great importance in the last years and decades as can be seen from the numerous publications addressing this theme. Today primary broadspectrum minerals hardly play a role as a carrier of nutrients in conventional agriculture
The fertilization of forest areas has increased substantially in recent years. In all, since 1982 over 500,000 hectares of forest were fertilized which is more than 7% of the forest area (in Germany). On about 95% of the areas fertilized in 1988, magnesium-containing lime (various types such as dolomite, limestone, etc.) was applied. On about 15% of the area, additional fertilization with several minerals, containing potassium and phosphorus were applied, in addition to the limestone.
The advantage of rock dust is that it is a natural, raw material, and carrier of numerous minerals and trace elements with long term effect. The nutrients are released slowly and gently during the process of natural weathering in the forest ecosystem (without fertilization shock). In the following, we report the latest results of the experiments in the forest of Arenberg-Schleiden.
Roughly 140 billion pounds of sewage sludge are produced annually in the U.S. in an attempt to separate our human wastes from the waters we mix them with. This number has steadily increased over the last two decades as more stringent waste water treatment regulations have been put into effect. Standard methods for dealing with sludge have included incineration, ocean dumping, landfilling, land application on farms and composting.