The ion exchange of the primary minerals is one of the central topics from the perspective of geological and soil scientific studies as well as papers concerning plant nutrition. The latter has been given great importance in the last years and decades as can be seen from the numerous publications addressing this theme. Today primary broadspectrum minerals hardly play a role as a carrier of nutrients in conventional agriculture
The fertilization of forest areas has increased substantially in recent years. In all, since 1982 over 500,000 hectares of forest were fertilized which is more than 7% of the forest area (in Germany). On about 95% of the areas fertilized in 1988, magnesium-containing lime (various types such as dolomite, limestone, etc.) was applied. On about 15% of the area, additional fertilization with several minerals, containing potassium and phosphorus were applied, in addition to the limestone.