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Silicon-augmented resistance of plants to herbivorous insects: a review

Silicon (Si) is one of the most abundant elements in the earth's crust, although its essentiality in plant growth is not clearly established. However, the importance of Si as an element that is particularly beneficial for plants under a range of abiotic and biotic stresses is now beyond doubt. This paper reviews progress in exploring the benefits at two- and three-trophic levels and the underlying mechanism of Si in enhancing the resistance of host plants to herbivorous insects. Numerous studies have shown an enhanced resistance of plants to insect herbivores including folivores, borers, and phloem and xylem feeders. Silicon may act directly on insect ...