8 results for group: carbon-dioxide-sequestration


Fuzzy optimization model for enhanced weathering networks using industrial waste

Enhanced weathering is a negative emissions technology based on the accelerated weathering of alkaline minerals. Such materials can be reduced to a fine powder and applied to land sinks to maximize the area exposed for reaction with rainwater and dissolved CO2. The carbon is captured in the form of bicarbonate ions in the runoff, which ultimately carries it to the ocean for virtually permanent sequestration. Enhanced weathering has been demonstrated in proof-of-concept laboratory and field tests, but scale-up to a level that delivers significant CO2 removal is still an engineering challenge that requires a system-level perspective. Future enhanced ...

Potential for large-scale CO2 removal via enhanced rock weathering with croplands

Enhanced silicate rock weathering (ERW), deployable with croplands, has potential use for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) removal (CDR), which is now necessary to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. ERW also has possible co-benefits for improved food and soil security, and reduced ocean acidification. Here we use an integrated performance modelling approach to make an initial techno-economic assessment for 2050, quantifying how CDR potential and costs vary among nations in relation to business-as-usual energy policies and policies consistent with limiting future warming to 2 degrees Celsius. China, India, the USA and Brazil have great potential to ...

Enhanced weathering strategies for stabilizing climate and averting ocean acidification

Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions1,2,3,4,5. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliorate ocean acidification by 2100. Global carbon cycle modelling6,7,8 driven by ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of twenty...

Farming with crops and rocks to address global climate, food and soil security

The magnitude of future climate change could be moderated by immediately reducing the amount of CO2 entering the atmosphere as a result of energy generation and by adopting strategies that actively remove CO2 from it. Biogeochemical improvement of soils by adding crushed, fast-reacting silicate rocks to croplands is one such CO2-removal strategy. This approach has the potential to improve crop production, increase protection from pests and diseases, and restore soil fertility and structure. Managed croplands worldwide are already equipped for frequent rock dust additions to soils, making rapid adoption at scale feasible, and the potential benefits ...

Carbonate precipitation in artificial soils as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide

Turnover of C in soils is the dominant flux in the global C cycle and is responsible for transporting 20 times the quantity of anthropogenic emissions each year. This paper investigates the potential for soils to be modified with Ca-rich materials (e.g. demolition waste or basic slag) to capture some of the transferred C as geologically stable CaCO3. To test this principal, artificial soil known to contain Ca-rich minerals (Ca silicates and portlandite) was analysed from two sites across NE England, UK. The results demonstrate an average C content of 30 ± 15.3 Kg C m−2 stored as CaCO3, which is three times the expected organic C ...

Increased yield and CO2 sequestration potential with the C4 cereal Sorghum bicolor cultivated in basaltic rock dust-amended agricultural soil

Land-based enhanced rock weathering (ERW) is a biogeochemical carbon dioxide removal (CDR) strategy aiming to accelerate natural geological processes of carbon sequestration through application of crushed silicate rocks, such as basalt, to croplands and forested landscapes. However, the efficacy of the approach when undertaken with basalt, and its potential co-benefits for agriculture, require experimental and field evaluation. Here we report that amending a UK clay-loam agricultural soil with a high loading (10 kg/m2) of relatively coarse-grained crushed basalt significantly increased the yield (21 ± 9.4%, SE) of the important C4 cereal Sorghum ...

Silicate production and availability for mineral carbonation

Atmospheric carbon dioxide sequestered as carbonates through the accelerated weathering of silicate minerals is proposed as a climate change mitigation technology with the potential to capture billions of tonnes of carbon per year. Although these materials can be mined expressly for carbonation, they are also produced by human activities (cement, iron and steel making, coal combustion, etc.). Despite their potential, there is poor global accounting of silicates produced in this way. This paper presents production estimates (by proxy) of various silicate materials including aggregate and mine waste, cement kiln dust, construct...

Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation Literature review update 2005–2007

The field of mineral sequestration for the long-term storage of carbon dioxide is a CCS (carbon dioxide capture and storage) option that provides an alternative for the more widely advocated method of geological storage in underground cavities, especially at locations where such underground cavities are not available, where the risk of leakage of the CO2 stored underground is considered unacceptable, or where large resources of material suitable for carbonation are present. Although the state of the art of mineral carbonation processing technically suffers from too slow chemical kinetics and poor energy economy, the driving forces for continued ...