45 results for group: climate-change


Carbon Dioxide Mineralization Feasibility in the United States

Geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage is one of many methods for stabilizing the increasing concentration of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere. The injection of CO2 in deep subsurface sedimentary reservoirs is the most commonly discussed method; however, the potential for CO2 leakage can create long-term stability concerns. This report discusses the feasibility of an alternative form of geologic CO2 storage: CO2 mineralization. In this method, CO2 reacts with rocks and minerals to form solid and stable carbonate rocks. New pilot projects and laboratory-based kinetics experiments have revealed that this method, both in situ and ex situ, may be a viable ...

Fuzzy optimization model for enhanced weathering networks using industrial waste

Enhanced weathering is a negative emissions technology based on the accelerated weathering of alkaline minerals. Such materials can be reduced to a fine powder and applied to land sinks to maximize the area exposed for reaction with rainwater and dissolved CO2. The carbon is captured in the form of bicarbonate ions in the runoff, which ultimately carries it to the ocean for virtually permanent sequestration. Enhanced weathering has been demonstrated in proof-of-concept laboratory and field tests, but scale-up to a level that delivers significant CO2 removal is still an engineering challenge that requires a system-level perspective. Future enhanced ...

Potential for large-scale CO2 removal via enhanced rock weathering with croplands

Enhanced silicate rock weathering (ERW), deployable with croplands, has potential use for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) removal (CDR), which is now necessary to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. ERW also has possible co-benefits for improved food and soil security, and reduced ocean acidification. Here we use an integrated performance modelling approach to make an initial techno-economic assessment for 2050, quantifying how CDR potential and costs vary among nations in relation to business-as-usual energy policies and policies consistent with limiting future warming to 2 degrees Celsius. China, India, the USA and Brazil have great potential to ...

Enhanced weathering strategies for stabilizing climate and averting ocean acidification

Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions1,2,3,4,5. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliorate ocean acidification by 2100. Global carbon cycle modelling6,7,8 driven by ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of twenty...

Farming with crops and rocks to address global climate, food and soil security

The magnitude of future climate change could be moderated by immediately reducing the amount of CO2 entering the atmosphere as a result of energy generation and by adopting strategies that actively remove CO2 from it. Biogeochemical improvement of soils by adding crushed, fast-reacting silicate rocks to croplands is one such CO2-removal strategy. This approach has the potential to improve crop production, increase protection from pests and diseases, and restore soil fertility and structure. Managed croplands worldwide are already equipped for frequent rock dust additions to soils, making rapid adoption at scale feasible, and the potential benefits ...

Assessing the potential of soil carbonation and enhanced weathering through Life Cycle Assessment: A case study for Sao Paulo State, Brazil

Enhanced silicate rock weathering for long-term carbon dioxide sequestration has considerable potential, but depends on the availability of suitable rocks coupled with proximity to suitable locations for field application. In this paper, we investigate the established mining industry that extracts basaltic rocks for construction from the Parana Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Through a Life Cycle Assessment, we determine the balance of carbon dioxide emissions involved in the use of this material, the relative contribution of soil carbonation and enhanced weathering, and the potential carbon dioxide removal of Sao Paulo agricultural land through ...

Carbonate precipitation in artificial soils as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide

Turnover of C in soils is the dominant flux in the global C cycle and is responsible for transporting 20 times the quantity of anthropogenic emissions each year. This paper investigates the potential for soils to be modified with Ca-rich materials (e.g. demolition waste or basic slag) to capture some of the transferred C as geologically stable CaCO3. To test this principal, artificial soil known to contain Ca-rich minerals (Ca silicates and portlandite) was analysed from two sites across NE England, UK. The results demonstrate an average C content of 30 ± 15.3 Kg C m−2 stored as CaCO3, which is three times the expected organic C ...

Increased yield and CO2 sequestration potential with the C4 cereal Sorghum bicolor cultivated in basaltic rock dust-amended agricultural soil

Land-based enhanced rock weathering (ERW) is a biogeochemical carbon dioxide removal (CDR) strategy aiming to accelerate natural geological processes of carbon sequestration through application of crushed silicate rocks, such as basalt, to croplands and forested landscapes. However, the efficacy of the approach when undertaken with basalt, and its potential co-benefits for agriculture, require experimental and field evaluation. Here we report that amending a UK clay-loam agricultural soil with a high loading (10 kg/m2) of relatively coarse-grained crushed basalt significantly increased the yield (21 ± 9.4%, SE) of the important C4 cereal Sorghum ...

Dust in the Wind

On a blistering June day in West and see what appears to be a blood-red curtain billowing the length of the horizon. When the curtain arrives, daylight disappears, and the land is covered in a dark red, gritty-tasting night. Going inside offers little protection—windblown dust soon penetrates shutters and plaster cracks, leaving a thin red layer everywhere; rooms feel like mine shafts. This is a dust storm in Africa’s arid Sahelian band, the southern fringe of the Sahara Desert from Mauritania to Chad. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240740/

Rock’s power to mop up carbon revisited

Last week, a group of geoengineers met in Hamburg to discuss what on the face of it sounds like a very attractive idea: to soak up anthropogenic carbon emissions using only rocks and water. In particular, they want to help to mitigate climate change by crushing rocks and dropping them into the sea or spreading them on land. The meeting was hailed a success, but the idea is still far from fruition.   Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature News, Vol 505, pp 464, copyright 2014. For the complete article, please visit: http://www.nature.com/news/rock-s-power-to-mop-up-carbon-revisited-1.14560